Female reproductive system

The female reproductive system is a system that is made of external and internal organs and its function is to produce new offspring with the help of the male reproductive system. The organs that are present in the female reproductive system are vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. Female reproductive system produces ova. This system then transports the ova into the site of fertilization. At the site of fertilization, the egg or ova is fertilized which is then transported into the uterus. In uterus implantation takes place. After the implantation fetus is formed that developed with the passage of time. During all these steps various hormones are released. Lastly baby birth occurs. If fertilization does not occur then the system is designed in such a way that it starts a cycle called the menstrual cycle.

Anatomy of the female reproductive system

The organs of the female reproductive system are divided into external and internal organs. The external organs of the female reproductive system are labia majora, labia minora, Bartholin glands, and clitoris. The function of the external organs of the female reproductive system is to enable the sperm to enter the body and to protect internal reproductive structures from infectious organisms.

Labia majora
Labia majora also called large lips are the structures that protect other external reproductive organs. Labia Majora is large and fleshy and contains sweat and oil-secreting glands. When a female reaches puberty(stage of postnatal development) labia majora are covered with hairs.

Labia minora
Labia minora also called small lips are 2 inches wide structures that lie inside the labia majora and surround the openings to the vagina and urethra.

Bartholin glands
Bartholin glands are present on the side of the vaginal opening and secrete a fluid known as mucus.

Clitoris
The clitoris is a small sensitive protrusion that is comparable to the male penis. Labia minora meet at the clitoris. Just like a male penis, the clitoris is covered by a loose skin called the prepuce and also has the ability to erect.

Internal organs of the female reproductive system

The internal organs of the female reproductive system include the vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries.

Vagina
Vagina also called the birth canal is a canal that joins the cervix to the outside of the body.

Uterus
The uterus is a pear-shaped structure in which the fetus develops. The uterus has two parts that are the cervix and the body. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina and allow the sperm to enter and menstrual blood to exit. The body of the uterus also called the uterus is a site where the fetus develops. The body also has the ability to expand and hold a developing baby.

Ovaries
Ovaries are small glands located on either side of the uterus. Ovaries are oval-shaped structures. The function of the ovaries is to produce eggs and hormones.

Fallopian tubes
Fallopian tubes are the tubes that attached to the upper part of the uterus and provide a pathway for an egg to travel to the uterus. Fertilization normally takes place in the fallopian tubes.

Menstrual cycle

The female reproductive system is designed in such a way that after the release of an egg if fertilization does not then the female must have to menstruate. The menstrual cycle is cycles of hormonal activities that occur at about one-month intervals. In the menstrual cycle, menstruation occurs which is the periodic shedding of the uterine lining.

The menstrual cycle occurs in three phases that are
1. Follicular phase
2.  Ovulatory phase
3.   Luteal phase

The hormones that are involved in the menstrual cycle are
1. Follicle stimulating hormones
2.  Luteinizing hormones
3.   Estrogen
4.   Progesterone

How many eggs does a woman have?

At birth, there are 1 to 2 millions eggs present in the female body but this number decreases to 300000 at puberty. Out of 3 lacs, only 500 will be released and the remaining eggs die out at menopause.

Diseases of the female reproductive system

1. Endometriosis
It is a condition that affects a female uterus. Endometriosis affects the place in the uterus where a baby grows. In endometriosis, the tissue that lines the uterus grows somewhere else. The places where these tissues can grow are ovaries, bowels, bladder.

Symptoms
1. Pain
2. Infertility
3. Very heavy period

Uterine fibroids
It is the most common condition in females of childbearing age. Fibroids are muscle cells, and tissues that grow around and in the uterus.

Symptoms
1. Painful periods
2.  Feeling full in the abdomen
3.  Lower back pain
4.   Urinating often
5.   Pain during sex
6.   Infertility
7.    Multiple miscarriages
8.     Early labor

Gynecologic cancer
It is a type of cancer that starts in the female reproductive organs. Gynecologic cancer can be divided into
1. Cervical cancer
2.  Ovarian cancer
3.   Uterine cancer
4.   Vaginal cancer
5.    Vulvar cancer

Cervical cancer begins in the lower part of the uterus called the cervix. Ovarian cancer begins in oval-shaped structures called ovaries. Uterine cancer begins in a pear-shaped shaped structure called uterus. Vaginal cancer starts in the vagina. Vulvar cancer starts in the vulva.

HIV and AIDS
women generally get HIV by having sex with an infected man or by using infected needles.

Interstitial cystitis
It is a chronic bladder condition that produces pain in the bladder or surrounding region. this condition can affect both males and females. This condition is more common in females than in men.

Symptoms
1. Abdominal pain
2.  Pelvic pain
3.  Feeling urgency to urinate
4.   Tenderness
5.   Severe lower abdominal pain

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
It is a condition in which the female ovaries produces more hormones than normal. As a result of more hormones, fluid-filled sacs called cyst develops in the ovaries. Females who suffer from polycystic ovary syndrome are at high risk of developing diabetes, and heart diseases.

Symptoms
1.Infertility
2. Pelvic pain
3.  Excess hair growth on the faces, chest, etc
4.  Acne
5.   Patches of thickened black skin.

Sexually transmitted diseases

Sexually transmitted diseases are a type of disease that a person can get from having sex with an infected person.  The causes of sexually transmitted diseases are bacteria, viruses, and parasites. These diseases affect both men and women and they are of 20 different types.