Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT)
What is a GIFT?
Gamete intrafallopian transfer is a reproductive procedure in which the egg is extracted from the females and then mix it with the sperm and immediately place them in a fallopian tube.
It differs from the in vitro fertilization because in IVF the fertilization takes place in the laboratory while in the gamete intrafallopian transfer fertilization takes place inside the fallopian tube.
The main requirement for the GIFT is healthy fallopian tubes.
It is also different from the zygote intrafallopian transfer due to the reason discussed above for IVF.
How Gametes intrafallopian transfer is performed?
GIFT is performed in the following steps which are,
Doctors first check at least one healthy fallopian tube with the help of X-rays. Doctors also check scar tissue on the outside of a fallopian tube with the help of a laparoscope.
In this step, eggs are extracted from the ovaries of females with the help of a laparoscope.
Males are asked to provide a sample of the sperm.
Eggs extracted from females are then mixed with the provided sperm sample in a catheter.
The mixture formed by a combination of extracted eggs and sperm is inserted into the fallopian tube with the help of a catheter.
In this step, medication is given to the female to build a uterine lining to support the implantation of the embryo.
Why we use Gamete intrafallopian transfer?
GIFT can be used in many cases some of them are
1. Unexplainable infertility
2. Failure of in vitro fertilization
3. Religious reluctance to use IVF
4. Moral reluctance to use IVF
5. Presence of at least one healthy fallopian tube
6. Low sperm count
7. Other sperm problems.
But there are a lot of reports which show that there is insufficient evidence to recommend GIFT or ZIFT in preference to in vitro fertilization in females and men’s with unexplained infertility.
What is the Difference between gamete intrafallopian transfer and IVF?
There may be more differences but we discuss only a few important which are,
1. In in vitro fertilization eggs are fertilized in the laboratory while in the GIFT eggs are fertilized in the fallopian tube.
2. In vitro fertilization is done when a female has blocked or damaged fallopian tubes.
3. GIFT requires at least one healthy fallopian tube.
4. IVF is an open process that allows checking to confirm fertilization and divisions. While GIFT is a restricted process.
5. GIFT has several benefits for example, couples do not have to deal with the embryo transfer.
What are the advantages of gamete intrafallopian transfer?
The best thing about the GIFT procedure is that it does not require you to be hospitalized.
The patient recovers very fast.
What are the disadvantages of gamete intrafallopian transfer?
Some of the disadvantages of the GIFT are
Doctors cannot determine embryo quality or confirm fertilization.
It cannot be used in the patient who has blocked fallopian tubes or problems in fallopian tubes.
As we know that in most fertility procedures the success rate depends on the male and female age and on the female egg quality. Many reports show that approximately 25 to 30% of gamete intrafallopian transfer cycles result in pregnancy. One-third of the success rate results in multiple pregnancies. The first baby that is formed through the procedure of GIFT was Todd Holden in the United Kingdom who was born in October 1986.
The first baby formed through the process of Gift in the United States of America was Kelley who born on 28 April 1987.
Less than 1% of the gamete intrafallopian transfer cycle resulted in an ectopic pregnancy. Ectopic pregnancy is a condition in which the embryo implants in other parts of the female reproductive system instead of the uterus.
What types of infertility can GIFT treat?
Gamete intrafallopian transfer can treat many types of infertility. But the types of infertility that occur due to abnormal or damaged fallopian tubes cannot be treated through the GIFT. Mild male infertility can also be treated with the GIFt if the sperm of the male is capable of fertilizing an egg.
What to expect?
If all the process are done accurately and the eggs and sperm are placed in the fallopian tube there is a great chance of fertilization. If the egg is fertilized it will move into the uterus and form a blastocyst which then passes from many stages and a fetus develops.
But as we know that in gamete intrafallopian transfer the sperm and eggs are placed in the fallopian tube of the female reproductive system before fertilization, therefore, it is possible that fertilization does not take place. There is no way to know that either the egg is fertilized or not.
To solve the above problem more eggs are used in the gamete intrafallopian transfer to ensure the pregnancy. Putting more eggs in the fallopian tube will increase the chances of pregnancy but it also increases the risk of multiple births.
Cost of the GIFT
Gamete intrafallopian transfer is a very expensive process and may cost fifteen thousand dollars to twenty thousand dollars a cycle. The cost of the procedure depends on the following factors
1. Place where you live
2. Amount of medication required to take
3. Number of cycles
4. The amount that your insurance company will pay.
GIFT cost more than IVF.
As we know that in gamete intrafallopian transfer we need eggs. To get the eggs from a female we use the laparoscopic method. laparoscopy increases the risks of pelvic infection, puncture of organs. The gift also increases the risk of multiple births that are sometimes very dangerous for mothers and babies.
Gift success versus multiple pregnancies
As we know when a female age over 35 its egg quality decreases. To solve the problems many eggs are collected then from the younger female. These eggs are then transferred into the fallopian tube that increases the risk of multiple pregnancies.
To avoid the risk of multiple pregnancies anatomists and many other experts recommend limiting the number of embryos transferred.
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