In vitro fertilization (IVF)

In vitro fertilization

 
In vitro fertilization is ART technology which is commonly referred to as IVF. In Vitro Fertilization is the process in which egg is extracted from the female and sperm are taken from the male and then combine the egg and sperm manually in the laboratory in a dish for fertilization.

The embryo which is formed as a result of IVF is then transferred into the uterus of the female.

Beside IVF technology there are also many other types of ART which are,
 1.  Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT)
 2.  Zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT)
 

Why did we use In Vitro fertilization?

In Vitro fertilization are used in different cases of infertility in both males and females.
 
This process is best for those peoples who are infertile but wants a child.
 
IVF is used to treat infertility patients.
 
IVF Can be used in the following patient,
 
 1.  Females who have blocked or damaged the fallopian tube.
 
 2.  Males who have decreased sperm count or they possess bad sperm motility.
 
 3.  IVF can be used in females who have ovulation disorders, uterine fibroids, and premature ovarian failure.
 
 4.  This process is also used for women who removed their fallopian tubes due to abnormalities.
 
 5.  IVF can be also used for persons who have genetic disorders.
 
 6.  IVF Can be also used when persons have unexplained infertility.
 

Steps within In Vitro fertilization

To understand IVF we divide the process into 5 steps which are,

Step 1:  First of all we need an egg from a female and to get it doctors give fertility medications to the patient. These medications stimulate egg production. In this process, multiple eggs are desired because some eggs will not develop. In this step, two main tests are made which are,

 
 1.  Ultrasound is used to examine the ovaries
 2.  A blood test is performed to check the hormone level.

 
Step 2:  In this step, the released eggs from the female are retrieved through a minor surgical procedure in which ultrasound is used to guide a hollow needle to remove the eggs.
In this step also medication is given to the patients to avoid potential discomfort.

 
Step3:  In this step, a male is asked to provide a sample of sperm, and this sample is then prepared for combining with extracted eggs.

 
Step4: In this step, the sperm and eggs are mixed and stored in a dish in the laboratory to encourage fertilization.  There are some cases in which there is a lower probability of fertilization and to overcome this doctor used intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). and in this way, one sperm is injected directly into the egg to overcome the lower probability. The eggs are then monitored to see that fertilization occurs or not. If occur then the next step is to monitor the cell division in the fertilized egg. If everything is ok then the fertilized egg is considered as an embryo.

 
Step 5: This is the last step in the in-vitro fertilization in which the embryo is placed into the uterus. For the transfer of an embryo, the small catheter or tube is inserted into the uterus. The process of transferring embryo is painless but some women may experience cramping. If all things are done accurately and the procedure is successful implantation occurs around six to ten days.

What are the Side effects of In Vitro fertilization?

Commonly the process cannot create side effects in most females but in some females, it creates some types of side-effects which are,
 
 1.  Mild cramping
 2. Bloating
 3. Constipation
 4. Breast tenderness
 5. Heavy vaginal bleeding
 6. Pelvic pain
 7. Blood in the urine
 8. Fever over 100°F
 
If you face these problems then go to the doctors.
 
As we discussed above that we use fertility medications which also create some side effects which are,
 
 1. Headache
 2. Mood swings
 3. Abdominal pains
 4. Hot flashes
 5. Abdominal bloating
 6. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

 
Risks associated with in vitro fertilization

As we know that every medical procedure has associated with potential risks. And therefore this process is also associated with potential risks which are

1.  Nausea or vomiting
 2. Shortness of breath
 3. Faintness
 4. Decreased urinary frequency
 5. Stomach pain
 6. Bloating
 7. Weight gaining
 
If you face these problems then go to the doctors because these are potential risks.

 
Other risks of in vitro fertilization

The additional risk is quite easy to understand if you read the steps above carefully. Some of these additional risks of IVF are,

1.  Extracting eggs from females carries the risks of,
 Bleeding
 Infection
 And damage to the bowel or bladders.

 
 2.  As we know that we use fertility medications in the process and this treatment carries a risk of multiple pregnancies. And these multiple pregnancies carry a risk of premature delivery and low birth weight.

 
 3.  A report published by the mayo clinic says that the risk of ectopic pregnancy with in vitro fertilization is 2- 5%.
 Ectopic pregnancy is the case in which the embryo implants outside the uterus.

 
 4.  Physiological stress and emotional problems are seen between the couples when IVF is unsuccessful.

 
 5.  IVF is expensive and the cost of a single in vitro fertilization cycle can range from at least 12000$ to 17000$.

 
How successful is IVF?

To understand the success rate of in vitro fertilization doctors considers various factors which are,
Reproductive history
Mental age
Cause of infertility
Lifestyle.
 
Another important point to understand the success rates of IVF is pregnancy rates and live birth rates which are not the same.
 
Here we arranged the success rates according to live birth rates and choose the united states of America for the data.

Here is the ratio
 
 1.  41-43% for females underage thirty-five
 2.  33-36% for females ages thirty-five to thirty-seven.
 3.  23-26% for females ages thirty-eight to forty.
 4.  13- 18% For females ages over forty.
 

What if I do not produce healthy eggs?

The option here for you is to choose donor eggs. However, study legal issues related to gametes donation which includes the legal rights of the donor.

 
What if I do not produce healthy sperm?

The option which is for the female is also for you to choose the donor sperm. But again we recommend that that study legal issues of gametes donation and the legal rights of the donor.

How many embryos are transferred?

There is no specific value but it depends on the number of eggs extracted and the mental age.
 
Here is the answer which might help you.
 
The rate of implantation decreases with an increase in age and to overcome this more embryo is transferred to increase the likelihood of implantation.
 
But transferring more embryos also carries the risk of multiple pregnancies which may result in premature delivery or low birth weight.
 
But there is a piece of good news for you which is that doctors will see all your history and then recommend the process.
 
 

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