Anatomy and its various subdivisions

Anatomy

Anatomy is the branch of science that deals with the structures of living organisms and their parts.  It is an old science. Inheritance of it is tied to various fields such as embryology, developmental biology, etc. and because of this anatomy is generated over short and long timescales.

anatomy
anatomy

In Anatomy and physiology functions and structure are often studied together. it is one of the basic science that is applied in the field of medicines.

classification

this branch can be divided into macroscopic and microscopic anatomy.

Divisions

it is divided into two major types which are macroscopic and microscopic anatomy.

1.Gross anatomy

Macroscopic or gross anatomy is the study of structures that are visible to the human naked eye. The study of gross anatomy involves dissection or noninvasive methods.  Dissection is the process in which scientists cut the Structures and then examine it.

In Endoscopy or angiography, the structures are studied through invasive methods.

To make it easy for students doctors and health professionals divide gross anatomy into two major classifications which are 1. Regional 2. Systemic anatomy.

In regional,

the body is divided into many regions.  For example, the human body is divided into many regions such as
Upper limbs
Lower limbs
Thorax

regional
regional

systemic

While in systemic type students learn about the systems of the body. There are a number of major systems present in the human body that are
1. Skeletal system
2.  Reproductive system
3.  Urinary system
4.  Muscular system
5.  Lymphatic system
6.  Respiratory system
7.  Digestive system
8.  Nervous system
9.   Endocrine system
10.  Cardiovascular system

systemic
systemic

2.Microscopic (histology)

It deals with the study of structures that can not be seen with the naked human eye. In histology, we learn about the composition of cells and tissues.  in histology, we use instruments like the light microscope and electron microscope, etc

Histology can be used for various purposes such as,
Diagnoses
Forensic investigations
Autopsies
And archaeology.

histology
histology

Why it is so important?

In anatomy, we study the structure while in physiology we study the functions of a part. If you have a good knowledge of anatomy and physiology it will help you in many cases such as treatment, research, and pathology.

Let’s understand it by example
When patients come for annual exams they come to you because of an organ is not functioning properly in their body. In order to treat them well, you must understand how the affected part works when it is healthy. And to understand the healthy structure you must have to learn anatomy and physiology.

importance
importance

What jobs can you get with an anatomy degree?

Jobs related to anatomy degree are

1.  Biomedical scientist
2.  Pharmacologist
3.  Research scientist
4.  Healthcare scientist
5.  Science writer
6.  Secondary school teacher
7.  Clinical research associate

job

Why should we study human anatomy and physiology together?

Anatomy and physiology are very related in one we study the structure while in the other we study the function.  But if you noticed that structures are formed in a specific way to fulfill a specific function.

For examples
Alveoli present in the lungs are a simple squamous epithelium (the study of structures). But this structure reveals that the composition of alveoli is of this type because it made the gas exchange easy which is their function.  From this example, we conclude that structures relate to functions, therefore, anatomy relates to physiology.

study

What is an Anatomist?

Anatomists are scientists who study structures of living organisms. Anatomists are biomedical researchers and educators focusing on an anatomical form.

Many Anatomists specialize in areas such as
1.  Cell biology
2.  Genetics
3.  Molecular biology
4.  Biological imaging
5.  Histology
6.  Neuroscience
7.  Forensic
8.  Microscopy
9.  Physical anthropology etc.

anatomists

Following are the requirements to become an anatomist
1.  Pay attention
2.  Develop good observation skills
3.  Fascination with structures
4.  Ability to integrate data
5.  Open mind
6.  Inquiring mind
7.  Good oral communication skills
8.   Good written communication skills
9.  Able to analyze data
10.  Able to find solutions
11.  Able to make models

Terminology

In order to learn, some terms must need to be understood because without these terms you cannot learn anatomy. These terms can be divided into two classes
1.  Positional terms
2.  Descriptive terms

Positional terms are terms that give a precise description. The descriptive term gives varied information.

Name of the terms which are mainly used are


1. Superior
2.  Inferior
3.  Anterior
4.  Posterior
5.  Lateral
6.  Medial
7.  Superficial
8.  Deep
9.  Proximal
10. Distal
11. Dorsal
12. Ventral
13. Ipsilateral
14. Contralateral
15.  Axial
16.  Abaxial
17.  Intermediate
18.  Visceral
19.  Parietal
20.  Caudal
21.  Cephalic
22.  Supine
23.  Prone
24.  Flexion
25.  Extension
26.  Abduction
27.  Adduction
28.  Circumduction
29.   Medial rotation
30.   Lateral rotation

terminology

These are some of the terms which are mainly used,.we will discuss these terms one by one in our next post, therefore, stay with us. You will find an explanation of these terms in our post named as the language of this field.

What is cadaver?

Cadaver is a dead body that is used by physicians and anatomists to study anatomy, find the cause of death, and to identify disease sites, etc.

firstly The medical study course consists of cadaver dissection but there are also other fields that deal with cadaver and similarly, these peoples are archaeologists and artists.

What is Topographic anatomy?

The study of a specific region of the body and the relation between different structures present in that part is known as topographic anatomy.

summary

it is the study of structures of the human body and it is divided into two main subdivisions which are gross and microscopic. peoples who study it are known as anatomists and achieving this degree they may work in various field.  It is very important to note that if you want to study this subject you must have to learn physiology with it. to make anatomy easy scientists introduce some terms which you have to learn. The benefits of this field are countless. because of these benefits, it helps in the treatment, identification of diseases, evolution, etc.