Male reproductive system its functions and diseases

Male reproductive system

The male reproductive system is a system that produces, maintains, and transports sperm and protective fluid semen. The male reproductive system is also responsible for the discharge of sperm inside the female reproductive tract during sexual intercourse. This system also secretes male sex hormones that are responsible for the maintenance of the reproductive system and These hormones also produce secondary sexual characters at puberty in the postnatal development.

As we know that most of the female reproductive system is located inside the body but the male system is mostly located outside the body. The structures of the male reproductive system can be divided into two classes, external and internal. The external structure includes the penis, scrotum, and testicles.

External organs of the male reproductive system


The penis is a male reproductive organ used during sex. Penis has three parts that are the root, body or shaft, and glans.

The root of the penis is attached to the abdominal wall. The body is the part of the penis present between the root and glans. Glans is cone-shaped part present at the end of the penis. Glans is covered by a loose layer of skin called foreskin. The foreskin is sometimes removed by a process called circumcision. The tube that transport semen and urine are present at the tip of the penis. The Glans or the head of the penis also contains sensitive nerve endings.

The body is cylindrical in shape and three circular chambers are present in it. These chambers are made from special sponge-like tissue. These Chambers contain large spaces that fill with blood when the penis is in erected state. The skin that covered the penis is loose to accommodate the change in penis size. The penis blocked the flow of urine when it is erected and only allow the semen to be ejaculated.


The scrotum is a pouch-like sac of skin present below the penis. It contains testicles, blood vessels, and nerves. The scrotum act as a cooler that keeps the testes slightly cooler than body temperature. There are special muscles present in the scrotum. The function of these muscles is to contract or relax moving the testes closer or far away from the body.


Testes are oval organs lie in the sac-like structure called scrotum. Testes are protected on either side by a spermatic cord. Normal men have two testicles that produce testosterone hormones and sperm. Coiled tube-like structures are present in the testes called seminiferous tubules that produce sperm cells.

Internal organs of the male reproductive system

The internal organs are the epididymis, Vas deferens, ejaculatory duct, urethra, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands.


It is a long coiled tube that is present on the back side of each testis. The sperms that are produced in the testicles are stored and transported by the epididymis. In the epididymis, the sperms gain maturity. So sperms that are formed in the testicles are immature. The sperms from the epididymis are than transported into the Vas deferens.

Vas deferens

It is a long tube that travels from the epididymis into the pelvic cavity. It transport sperm to the urethra.

Ejaculatory duct

The ejaculatory duct is formed by the fusion of seminal vesicles and Vas deferens that empties into the urethra.


The urethra is a tube that starts from the bladder and ends at the tip of the penis. Urethra transport urine and semen to the outside of the body. The Urethra blocks the flow of urine when a person is sexually aroused and allows only semen to be ejaculated.

Seminal vesicles

Near the base of the bladder pouches like structures are attached to the Vas deferens called seminal vesicles. These vesicles produce a fluid that provides energy to the sperm. The fluid that is secreted by the seminal vesicles made most of the volume of man ejaculate.

Prostate glands

Below the urinary bladder and in front of the rectum there is a walnut-sized structure called the prostate gland. This gland secretes a fluid to the ejaculate that helps the sperm to nourish.

Bulbourethral glands

Bulbourethral glands are pea-sized structures on the side of the urethra below the prostate gland that secretes a slippery fluid. The fluid of bulbourethral glands empties directly into the urethra. The function of the fluid is to lubricate and neutralize the urethra.

How does the male reproductive system work?

The male reproductive system is dependent on hormones. Hormones are the chemical substances that that regulate the activity of systems of the body. There are three hormones that are involved in the male reproductive system. These hormones are
1. Follicle stimulating hormones
2.  Luteinizing hormones
3.  Testosterone

Follicle stimulating hormones are necessary for the process of spermatogenesis in which sperm are produced. Luteinizing hormones stimulates the production of another type of hormones called testosterone. Testosterone is the hormones that develop secondary sexual characters in male. Secondary sexual characters include

1.Increase muscle mass
2.Strengthen the muscles
3. Fat distribution
4.  Bone mass increases
5.  Facial hair growth
6.  Voice change
7.   Sex drive etc.

What are the functions of this system?

The functions of the male reproductive system
1.  It produces sperm
2.  It maintains sperm
3.   It transport sperm
4.    It produces a protective fluid called semen
5.    Discharge of sperm inside the female reproductive tract
6.    It secretes testosterone hormones that are responsible for the development of secondary sexual characters.

Male reproductive system diseases

Below are some of the diseases that occur in the male reproductive system.

1. Hypospadias
2.  Hydrocele
3.   Varicocele
4.   Cryptorchidism
5.    Benign prostatic hypertrophy
6.    Transurethral resection of the prostate
7.     Prostate-specific antigen.

Summary of the male reproductive system

The male reproductive system is a system that produces, maintain and transport sperm to the female reproductive tract. The organs of the male reproductive system are divided into external and internal organs. External organs are penis, scrotum, and testicles. The internal organs are the epididymis, Vas deferens, prostate gland,  ejaculatory duct, seminal vesicles, and bulbourethral glands. There are three hormones that act on the male reproductive system and bring various changes in it. the three hormones that are involved are testosterone, follicle stimulating hormones, and luteinizing hormones.