physiology introduction


physiology is the branch of science that explains the physical and chemical mechanisms that are responsible for the progression of life.

each type of life present on the earth has its own functional characteristics and physiology try to give information that how their structures make them a living being.



It is a very wast field due to the different types of life present in the earth from unicellular to complex multicellular and each one of them possesses their own functional characteristics. Therefore to understand it scientist divides into various types which are

mammalian and
human physiology etc.

Human physiology

It explains various mechanisms of the body which makes it a living being. A human body has a very complex system and these systems are very strict.
A small amount of change in these systems may cause a huge disturbance in the body. And due to this reason, itis very important clinically so that the health care services provider may understand that what is wrong in the body.
it also plays a major role in the medicines.
Without knowing it, doctors cannot treat the patient.


Neurophysiology and
Respiratory Physio

History of physiology

The study of physio occurs in ancient India and Egypt. The history of physiology goes back at least as far as the time of Hippocrates. Hippocrates is known as the father of medicines.

Hippocrates proposed a theory that the body contained four fluids that are black bile, phlegm, blood, and yellow bile. According to the Hippocrates, any disturbance in these fluids can cause diseases in the body.

Claudius Galenus modify the Hippocrates theory and perform experiments to get information about the system of the body. On the basis of his experiments, he is known as the founder of experimental physiology.

The name physiology was coined by a German physician Jean Fernel. Physiology is a Greek word that means the study of nature and origins.

Fernel also describes the spinal canal.

Another advancement in the field of physiology with the publication of William Harvey’s book.

Harvey describes the systemic circulation and the journey of blood through the brain.

For many years peoples work in the field of physiology was based on the theory of the Hippocrates. But after 1838 thought changes when cell theory came to the market. Cell theory was proposed by Schleiden and Schwan.

Joseph Lister in 1858 discovers and utilize lifesaving antiseptic.

Physiology  modern period

The modern time of this field starts in 1500. Some of the great achievement in the modern period is,

term physiology was introduced.
new discoveries about the circulation of the blood
the role of electricity in nerves
center of respiration 
blood coagulation
conditional responses
cell theory
comparative physiology
blood flow regulation
sliding filament theory

These are some of them otherwise the list is very large and it is impossible for us to make such a huge list of achievements.

What are some specialties of physiology?

Specialties of physiology include
1. Cell physiology
2.  Systemic physio
3.  Pathological physiology
4.  Special physio

Cell physiology deals with the functions if the cells. In cell physiology, we study the chemical process that occurs in the cell and also study the interaction between the cells. In special physiology, we study specific organs. An example of special physiology is cardiac physio in which we study the heart function. In systemic physio, we study different systems of the body. Systemic physio is the same as systemic anatomy but the difference is that in systemic anatomy we study the structures of a system while in systemic physio we study the functions of a system.  Example of systemic physiology is renal physiology, neurophysiology, etc. Pathological physiology is the study of the effects of a disease on the body.

What are physiologists?

Physiologists are highly trained professionals who study humans, plants, and animal functions at both the cellular and molecular level. Physiologists are highly in demand in their related fields for their scientific research to better understand how living organisms work.

Physiologists conduct research projects to explore the relationship between the cells, tissues, and systems of the body. Physiologists also have a responsibility to investigate diseases. Physiologist’s also developed instruments for medical application.

Physiologist’s works in many places such as in
1. Research Institutes
2.  Universities
3.  Physician offices
4.  Pharmaceutical manufacturing companies
5.  Surgical hospitals.

How to become a physiologist?

If you want to become a physiologist the start earning a bachelor degree in physiology, biology, computer science to build a strong foundation. After earning a bachelor degree you have to earn a master degree in physiology for more specialized training.  The next step is to build your resume. After these steps now you have two options.
1. Apply to jobs
2.  Earn a Ph.D. degree.

Notable physiologists

Gerty Cori
Carl Cori
Barbara McClintock
Gertrude Elion
George Hitchings
Sir James Black
Linda B. Buck
Richard Axel
Françoise Barré-Sinoussi
Luc Montagnier
Elizabeth Blackburn
Carol W. Greider
 Jack W. Szostak,


physio is the study of the functions in living organisms. It is a branch of biology. In physio, we study who the internal organs work and who the body interacts with the external environment. In physio, we study the cells, tissues, and systems and their relationship that how these structures combine their efforts to make a favorable condition for survival.

Human physio is divided into many parts or branches. Branches of are
1. Cell physio
2.  System physio
3. Evolutionary
4. Defense physio
5.  Exercise physio

In cell physio, we study the function of cells and how they interact with the other cells. In system physio, we study how body system work and what are their functions. In defense physio, we study the reactions of a body to potential threats.

Physiologists are a highly trained professional who studies living organisms. These professionals mean physiologists are in high demand due to their scientific research. Many fields other than physiology need physiologist to better understand the living organisms. To become a physiologist first earn a bachelor degree in physio than earn a master degree in physio through specialized training. After the master degree, you have two options first apply for jobs and second, earn a Ph.D. degree.