Pollution is the addition of substances to the environment at a rate faster than it’s decomposition, recycled, and dilution rate. The major classes are air, water, and land pollution. The classification is old but in modern society, new types of pollutions are also introduced such as noise, plastic, and light pollution. Pollution has negative impacts on the environment, wildlife, and human health. Pollution also contributes to climate change that is a very serious issue. The impact of pollution on our planet is very strong.
The effects of pollution become worse day by day. It affects millions of people across the globe even in developed countries such as the USA, Canada, China, Australia, and European countries. Most of the health problems are associated with pollution. A simple definition of pollution is that it is the introduction of something into the environment that is unclean and has harmful effects.
Facts about pollution
1. Ozone pollution causes respiratory diseases and cardiovascular diseases.
2. 14000 peoples across the globe died every day due to air pollution.
3. 500 million Indians have no access to the proper toilets due to it and other reasons 10 million people in India fell ill by a group of diseases called waterborne diseases.
4. In 2013, 1535 people’s died in India due to waterborne diseases.
5. Due to air pollution, 1.2 million people die in china prematurely.
6. 500 million Chinese lack access to safe water.
7. In 2007 half a million deaths per year occur in India due to air pollution.
8. Around 50000 in the united states die due to pollution.
9. Skin irritation is caused by oil spills.
10. Sleep disturbance, high blood pressure, and stress is induced by noise pollution.
11. Mercury, when present is a pollutant in the environment, can cause developmental deficits.
12. Lead causes neurological problems.
13. Chemicals cause cancers.
14. Radioactive substances can cause birth defects.
15. Around nine million people die annually around the globe due to toxic air, water, and soil.
16. The number of death occur due to air pollution is three times more than the death caused by AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria combined.
17. The number of death caused by pollution is 15 times more than the death that occurs during the war or other human violence.
18. it causes ocean acidification.
19. Global warming is another major problem that is caused by PO.
20. The amount of sunlight is reduced by smog and haze.
21. The soil becomes infertile or less productive due to pollution.
22. Oxygen level is depleted by organic pollution.
History of pollution
Pollution is not a new process that starts in the 21st century but actually, it is older than most people realize. The evidence of this problem is found by archeologists routinely in the form of various stone tools that show that pollution starts forty thousand years ago. The air pollution starts when first-time woods are burned and actually I think that air pollution starts when there is no human being on the planet from various phenomena such as forest fire etc. It is not necessary that the pollution is only caused by human. Nature also contributes to pollution. But the difference is that nature strictly regulates itself while humans are not able to maintain the environment.
Below are some examples that show that this problem exists from the beginning
1. Lead pollution from roman smelters
2. Forest fires that exist before the human
3. Wood burning that starts when the early humans start utilizing the woods for their benefits.
8. Volcanoes eruption
All of the above examples and evidence show that pollution exists from the beginning.
Although pollution exists from the beginning. But it’s increased in magnitude and becomes a real problem when peoples moved from the nomadic to the settled societies. But for simplicity one can consider that real pollution starts after world war II. We consider the world war II is the beginning of real pollution because after it many big industries are established and these industries start manufacturing various substances by using synthetic materials such as plastic, PCBs, and inorganic pesticides. The materials that are used by the big industries at that time are not only toxic but also accumulates in the environment. The substances used by these industries are not biodegradable. These nonbiodegradable substances thus increased the rate of cancers, physical birth defects, mental retardation, and many other health problems.
History of water pollution
Water is essential for all organisms that live on the planet earth. Due to its importance, the humans start a settlement in the places where plenty of water is available. These people’s used water and contaminate it because at that time they do not know the importance of clean water. The importance of clean water was understood by the peoples in the second half of the nineteenth century. History shows that various civilizations contaminate the water, for example, the Rome sewers carried the human waste into the Tiber river. The Romes polluted the river so aggressively that they build aqueducts to obtain clean water.
Water pollution is responsible for many outbreaks of diseases such as cholera outbreaks and typhoid outbreaks. The impact of water PO on the human is so severe that ten of thousands of people’s are killed every year from it. Even the developing countries are not safe from water PO.
Water PO in most developed countries exists from the past up to now and somewhere they are not very serious about it. Because these countries are either busy in wars or they are under the controlled of the business community. The increased in the magnitude of water PO occurs when the industrial revolution progressed and it gives a shape of a major crisis to water pollution.
So the conclusion of the history of water PO is that it exists from the past up to now. The people of the planet earth are still not very serious about it.
History of Air pollution
The history of air pollution exists at the time of ancient people in the form of wood-burning. In the modern era, air PO increased in magnitude exponentially. Coal burning is one of the major factors in air pollution. The regulations for controlling air PO first appeared in 1273. In 1952 four thousand people’s died as a result of the smog trapped in the thermal inversion. The air PO becomes severe day ba day and all the nations in the world suffer from it except few such as Nepal etc. Nepal is a country that is carbon neutral but some scientists thought that Nepal is not carbon neutral but it is carbon negative. Most of the respiratory problems are associated with air PO. To understand the air PO you have to see the statistic of respiratory diseases.
Types of pollution
The major types are
1. Air pollution
Air PO is the presence of harmful chemicals and particulates in the atmosphere. The common pollutants that cause air PO are carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, and nitrogen oxides. Other types are
2. Light pollution
3. Noise PO
4. Plastic PO
5. Soil PO
6. Visual PO
7. Water PO
8. Radioactive PO
9. Thermal PO etc.
A pollutant is a substance that causes pollution. There are thousands of pollutants that are classified on the basis of their severity. The severity of a pollutant is determined by three factors that are
1. Chemical nature of pollutant
2. The concentration of pollutant
The seriousness of people about environmental pollution is raised after seeing it’s negative effect and now they are trying to control it. Some countries made great efforts to limits the releases of harmful substances into the environment. The major process that is developed to control this problem is
1. Air pollution control system
2. Wastewater treatment system
3. Solid waste management system
4. Hazardous waste management system.
6. Green energy
7. Electric cars
These steps are taken but the problem still exists the same and you can observe it in the large cities. The problem of plastic PO is now becoming more severe. Climate change that occurs due to air pollution causes disturbing changes to the whole planet earth and now these changes become irreversible which is a very serious issue.
How to stop pollution?
Every one of us is responsible for it and we have the responsibility to play our role to tackle this problem
Below are some points which you can do to stop it
2. Manufacture environmentally safe product
3. Reduce the use of engined vehicles
4. Use products that are safe for the environment
5. Aware people’s
6. Report timber mafia
8. Recycle unwanted things as you can.
9. Make a small garden in your home if possible.
10. Attend environmental seminars
11. Share posts on social media against pollution.
12. Avoid plastic use
13. Respect the nature
14. Use green energy if possible
15. Use less electricity
Most polluting industries
There are many types of industries in the world but some produced much more than others. Below is the list of industries that produced the most pollution. This list is published by the pure earth which is a nonprofit organization.
According to pure earth, the industries that produced the most pollution are
1. Lead-acid recycling battery
2. Industrial mining
3. Ore processing
4. Lead smelting
5. Tannery operation
6. Small scale gold mining
7. Municipal dumpsites
8. Industrial estates
9. Chemical manufacturing
10. Product manufacturing
11. Dye industries.
World most polluted areas
3. Citarum river
4. Dzershinsk river
8. Matanza Riachuelo
9. Niger river delta
Pollution control devices
Below is the list of some devices that control the pollution. These devices work for specific pollution. These devices are
1. thermal oxidizer
4. Electrostatic precipitators
5. Baffle spray scrubber
6. Cyclonic spray scrubber
7. Ejector venturi scrubber
8. Mechanically aided scrubber
9. Spray tower
10. Wet scrubber
12. Activated sludge treaters
13. Aerated lagoon
14. Constructed wetland
Effects on health
PO can affect all types of life ranging from microorganisms to humans. For example, bad air quality can kill many organisms including human beings. Ozone PO is a very serious type of PO that can cause respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, throat inflammation, and chest pain. Water PO kills thousands of people every day. In 2013 ten million people in India fell ill with waterborne diseases. A study performed in 2010 shows that 500 million people in China lack access to safe drinking water. These are some of them.
Global warming is a phenomenon that occurs when the air pollutants and other greenhouse gases collect and absorb the light that comes from the sun that bounced from the earth’s surface. Normally the radiation that came into the earth escapes to space but due to air pollutants and greenhouse gases prevents its escape and trap the heat. This trap of heat makes our planet hotter. That is why this process is also called the greenhouse effect.
Scientists now believe that raise in earth temperature can cause frequent droughts, heavy rainfall, and hurricanes. Ocean temperature also raises with global warming due to which tropical storm pick more energy and a category 3 storm is converted into category 4 storm. The effect of global warming is
1. Melting glaciers
2. Water shortage
3. Severe droughts
4. Rising sea level
5. Coastal flooding
6. New pests
8. Heavy downpours
9. Disruption of habitat
10. Allergies outbreaks
11. Asthma outbreaks
Actually, global warming is the rise in the average temperature of the planet earth. The effect of global warming on the human is due to rise in temperature and shift in precipitation. The effects of global warming can be seen all around the world so every region of the earth is unsafe from the effects of global warming.