System of the body

The system of the body

In this article, we will give a short introduction to the various important system of the body. After reading this article you will be able to understand which are the main systems in the body and what are their functions.

There are 12 major systems in the body. these system works dependently and independently to maintain body health.

These systems are as follows

1. Respiratory system

This system works to oxygenate venous blood and eliminate carbon dioxide from the body. The human respiratory system consists of a series of organs that are responsible for inhaling oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide. The main and primary organs of this system are the lungs. Red blood cells take oxygen in the lungs so the blood becomes oxygenated. This blood is then transferred to the organs and tissues of the body where oxygen from the blood goes to tissues. Carbon dioxide from the tissues is brought to the lungs by the blood from where the lung expelled it out.  The structures present in this system are
nose
nasopharynx
larynx
trachea
bronchi
bronchioles
alveoli
diaphragm

 

respiratory

 

 

2. Articular system

This system works to produce movement in the body and give stability to the bones and protect various organs.
This system comprises various joints with their ligaments.
The structures present in this system are
Cartilaginous Joints
fibrous joints
synovial joint
elastic cartilage
hyaline cartilage

articular

 

3. Muscular system

This system produces movement in various joints o the body and thus is responsible for the activity, locomotion, and facial expression. The muscular system is an organ system that consists of three types of muscle that are smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscles. This system is controlled by the nervous system of the body.

This system consists of
flexor
extensor
abductor
adductor
aponeurosis
synovial sheath
retinaculum

muscular

 

4. Circulatory system

This system supplies nutrients and oxygen to the body cells and takes away carbon dioxide from cells and helps to regulate acid-base balance in the body via the blood.
This system also plays a major role in immunity and hormone system.
The structures present in this system are
Heart
Arteries
arterioles
capillaries
veins
anastomoses

circulatory

 

5.Lymphatic system

This system comprises of various lymph vessels which withdraw excess tissue fluids then filter it through lymph nodes and returns it to the venous system. This system is part of the circulatory system and an important part of the human immune system. This system consists of a large network of lymphatic vessels that carry lymph a clear fluid.  This system is not a closed system.  Lymph is similar to blood plasma. Lymph contains lymphocytes. These lymphocytes are concentrated in specific areas that are known as lymph nodes.

the structures present in this system are
lymph vessels
lymph nodes
spleen
afferent lymphatic vessel
efferent lymphatic vessels

lymphatic

 

6.Skeletal system

This system consists of cartilages and bones which provides support and symmetry to the body.bones also acts as a storehouse of calcium and provide attachment to various muscles for locomotion.
This system also protects the delicate organs of the body.
this system consists of
pectoral girdle
pelvic girdle
axial skeleton
appendicular skeleton

skeletal system

 

 

7. Integumentary system

This system consists of skins and it’s various appendages. Skin is the outermost and sensitive covering of the body. This system protects the body of an organism from many types of damages such as loss of water etc. This system also protects the internal structure and regulates the body temperature

The structures present in this system are
Skin
hair
sweat gland
sebaceous gland
nails.

integumentary system

 

8.Digestive system

This system consists of various organs that are associated with the ingestion, mastication, digestion, and absorption of food components.
This system also removes solid waste from the body.
The structures present in this system are
mouth
stomach
small intestine
large intestine
anus
liver
gall bladder
pancreas
intestinal glands.

digestive system

 

9. The urinary system

This system excretes liquid waste from the body. This system is also known as a renal system. The function of this system is to remove waste from the body and regulate blood volume, pressure, electrolytes, metabolites, and PH.

The structures present in this system are
kidney
ureters
urinary bladders
urethra.

Kidneys filter the blood and produce and expel urine at frequent intervals.

 

 

urinary system

 

 

 

10. Reproductive system

Due to this system, an individual is able to produce offspring.
This system consists of different organs in males and females. these two sets of organs are responsible for the production of ova and spermatozoa which on fertilization develops into a fetus.

Male reproductive structures are

testes
epididymis
vas deferens
ejaculatory duct
urethra
prostate
seminal vesicles
penis

Female reproductive structures are

ovaries
fallopian tube
uterus
vagina

reproductive system

 

11. The endocrine system of the body

this system consists of ductless glands like hypothalamus which secretes hormones. These hormones are then carried to various targeted organs via blood.

In male testis is an additional endocrine gland while in the female ovary is an additional endocrine gland.

These hormones influence various process such as

metabolism
production of spermatozoa
menstrual cycle.

endocrine system

 

12. The nervous system

This system consists of a central nervous system and peripheral nervous system which consists of billions of neurons. Nervous system coordinate actions by transmitting signals. The nervous system detects environmental changes and transferred it to the central nervous system where the information is processed ed and then signals from the central nervous system are sent to the effectors and the effectors than respond according to the message.

This system controls the whole body including muscles, glands, and organs.

This system controls both voluntary and involuntary activities.

 

nervous system

Summary

There are a lot of systems in the body that works and perform normal functions. Every system of the body has some specific functions. Any disturbance in these systems causes some serious diseases. There are many systems in the body but twelve of them are major. the major systems of the body are the respiratory system, circulatory system, digestive system, lymphatic system, integumentary system, articular system, muscular system, reproductive system, immune system, and nervous system.  All of these systems are specific in functions, for example, the urinary system excretes waste from the body and the nervous system is responsible for information processing.